Design of Payments for Environmental Services: state of the art and problem statement
Authors: Nick Hanley, Laure Kuhfuss
Abstract: Protected areas play a valuable role in maintaining ecosystems, their biodiversity, and the services they provide. One way to manage these protected areas in order to secure the provision of these services is through the use of payment mechanisms, like PES schemes. Though these schemes are more and more frequently implemented, their design is still a challenging task. This presentation will provide a review of the state of the art of the design of payments schemes for the provision of ecosystem services. After a synthesis of the main challenges, we will identify the recent advances and remaining problems to be encountered in the design of schemes both environmental-effective and cost-effective.
What do people want for the Vistre River? Using choice experiment to support an ordinary stream restoration project
Authors: Sylvie Morardet, Laure Kuhfuss, Robert Lifran
Abstract: While flood control has been the main argument supporting early projects reshaping the Vistre riverbed (South-East of France), this policy proved to be inefficient to avoid catastrophic flood events. Furthermore, considering the poor ecological status of the river, on-going restoration projects aim at improving the river ecosystem quality and access for recreation. In agreement with the local authorities, we performed a choice experiment survey for assessing the public values attached to the restoration of the local streams, and understanding their preferences heterogeneity. Two multinomial models as well as a latent class model were estimated. Contrary to the expectations of main stakeholders, the results demonstrated that improvements in the quality of the river’s environment are more valued by local residents than flood control. Respondents’ ethics and confidence in the efficiency of the project management have a great influence on the heterogeneity of willingness to pay for restoration.
Opportunity analysis and evaluation of PES-like instruments for nature conservation in Flanders (Belgium)
Authors: Dieter Mortelmans, Rolinde Demeyer, Francis Turkelboom, Lieven De Smet
Abstract: PES is often presented as a promising instrument for nature conservation and development. However, at this stage, there are only few documented example of PES programmes in Europe, and none in Belgium. On the other hand, numerous existing financial instruments already implicitly address ecosystem services. Building on PES experiences worldwide, we developed a list of 16 criteria and success factors for PES instruments and constructed an opportunity analysis method to identify the potential of a PES approach. Our aim was to provide policy makers with necessary tools to evaluate their existing set of financial instruments for nature conservation in a PES perspective, and to identify avenues for improvement. Moreover our opportunity analysis allows policymakers to better identify the niche where PES instruments can be an effective option. We showed that this PES niche might be relatively small in the context of protected areas, although some promising opportunities exist.
The importance of stakeholders to identify preferred ecosystem services in a protected area: results from a national park
Authors: Sarah Jeanloz, Nele Witters, Sebastien Lizin, Steven Van Passel
Abstract: Protected areas (PAs) situated in urbanised regions play a substantial role in the provision of ecosystem services to residents and visitors. This provision has a management cost that is largely covered by (declining) governmental sources. To reduce their high dependency on public subsidies, PAs need to build a diverse funding portfolio to achieve financial sustainability. Payment mechanisms that capture the economic benefits delivered to PA beneficiaries represent a solution to reduce dependency. For payment mechanisms to be sustainable and applicable, their design is based on the consultation of stakeholders. Our study contributes to better defined procedures for pre-design research. Therefore, we describe how to conduct systematic qualitative research so as to identify attributes to be included in a choice experiment. Our study reports on the use of both focus groups and individual interviews to explore the importance local stakeholders attribute to ecosystem goods and services associated with a national park.