Capacity for ecosystem services from a boreal forest – conservation for biodiversity, carbon storage and other ecosystem services of the protected Trillemarka forest in Norway. An application of the UN System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) – E
Authors: Bjart Holtsmark, Per Arild Garnaasjordet, Kristine Grimsrud, Erik Framstad, Iulie Aslaksen
Abstract: Forests provide many types of ecosystem services, including supportive services of ecological functions, carbon storage, timber production, and recreation. Biodiversity is the basis for ecosystem services, to a different extent for various types of services. Actually there is a basket of different ecosystem services, and the crucial policy issue is the selection of possible baskets both now and in the future. There must be made a trade-off between the different types of service, as some can be jointly produced while others represent a conflict of interest. The paper illustrates the use of different ecosystem services from boreal forests with large potential for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services, with a case study from a protected forest area in Norway. We analyze the conflict and synergy between timber production and carbon storage in a hundred years perspective, and the situation in terms of biodiversity and potential use for recreation is discussed.
Soil agrarian systems under intensification: changing values and livelihoods in Navarra, Spain
Authors: Amaia Albizua, Unai Pascual, Esteve Corbera
Abstract: This paper explores qualitative perceptions of ecosystem services and the connections between such services and human wellbeing through an inductive process, using the case of an agricultural system under transformation through irrigation in Navarra, northern Spain. We identify which livelihood variables and production models influence perceptions of ecosystem services among different stakeholders including landowners and farmers and we analyse if agricultural intensification translates into significantly different perspectives on ecosystem services, and their related benefits. We finally discuss the relationship between the qualitative valuation of ecosystem services, farmers’ livelihoods and wellbeing and draw implications for agricultural and rural development policies.
‘An assessment of the Arctic Biodiversity with the GLOBIO model’ - Modelling biodiversity to assess the contribution of human induced threats and test the impact of potential policy measures that aim to reduce biodiversity loss.
Authors: Wilbert van Rooij
Abstract: A pilot study of the assessment of human impact factors on Arctic biodiversity is carried out with the GLOBIO model as part of the Economy of the North project. This model is developed by Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) and is used to calculate the contribution of 5 pressures on the loss of biodiversity. The context of the analysis, which starts with detailed data from Norway, is to relate environmental change and ecological impacts directly to human activities, in order to strengthen the integrated knowledge basis for sustainable development. The contribution of pressures in the arctic is different in comparison to the impact in the rest of the world. Climate change will also increase the pressure caused by land use change. Results of the model can be used to select, test and prioritize policy measures that are likely to have a positive impact on the reduction of biodiversity loss.
The relevance of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) reporting in the Barents Region
Authors: Adrian Braun
Abstract: This paper examines the relevance of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the framework of metal mining operations in the Barents region, located in the most northern latitudes of Europe. A fragile ecosystem and areas with comparatively high population require that mining companies meet their ecological and social responsibilities in the European Arctic. The analysis encompasses four metal mining enterprises in the Barents region and their specific approaches to implement CSR into the corporate strategy. This includes reporting, auditing and accounting of diverse CSR practices. Particularly, reporting and policy documents of the chosen case studies enable the analysis of CSR relevance in the mining sector and provide a comprehensive portrayal about CSR standards and guidelines that are applicable. Additionally, the analysis reveals stakeholder groups, affected by the companies; including local communities, employees, governmental actors, customers and NGO´s.
Underlying norms and ethics regarding sustainable use and distribution of resources in the Arctic
Authors: Judith Klostermann
Abstract: In the Arctic a pattern similar to that in other places in the world is developing: a remote area, sparsely populated, with lucrative underground resources; and nation states assuming that development of those resources is also in the interest of the local population. No one knows what the long term consequences of different courses of action are. Next to knowing more about the ‘hardware’ of the Arctic like fossil fuel prospecting we also need to know more about the ‘software’ that is governing the choices in this difficult debate. What are the underlying norms in the institutional frameworks used in the Arctic? For this analysis we develop a framework based on the literature regarding the ethics of sustainable resource use. Based on the framework a set of codes is developed with which formal documents are analysed on the use of criteria from different discourses.