Cost-shifting success or ‘fuel’ for activism? The case of food banks in the Global North
Authors: Aaron Vansintjan, Nicolas Kosoy
Abstract: In ecological economics, research on externalities (or cost-shifting) has often focused on extractive industries and toxic waste sites. Yet cost-shifting also occurs when industries ‘dump’ excess resources, such as surplus food, onto poor communities. What happens when a form of cost-shifting (food surplus dumping) can provide de-commodified benefits (food donations) for impoverished people? Relying on an institutional analysis of the history of food banks in Canada, this study reveals how food bank volunteers process industrial food waste, taking on the costs of the food industry, while they may also use food surplus as ‘fuel’ for anti-poverty activism. This both confirms and complicates the cost-shifting thesis, showing that externalities may at times be used to fund ‘environmentalism of the poor’. It also suggests that wealth redistribution is not enough to address cost-shifting practices; ‘nested institutions’ are necessary to manage and regulate resources and externalities.
Conceptions of justice in socio-environmental conflicts. A framework proposal and application to Madagascar.
Authors: Jean-Marc Douguet, Vahinala Raharinirina, Philippe Roman, Martin O’Connor, Joan Martinez-Alier
Abstract: The analysis of socio-environmental conflicts is widespread and it crosses disciplinary boundaries. The ecological economics approach provides an account of the material reasons for increasing conflicts, through the study of societies’ metabolism. Local conflicts are thus related to global lifestyles and consumption patterns. Particular attention is also paid by ecological economists to valuation languages. We use insights from grassroots movements to devise a framework for analysing justice dimensions in environmental conflicts, and we propose a framework which is usable by actors involved in such conflicts.
We propose a framework (called the Representation Rack) which preserves the multidimensionality of environmental justice applied to case studies in Madagascar. In a first step, we define six environmental inequality criteria. In the second step, we propose to use a tool, called the Deliberation Matrix, in order to express, for different case studies, from the point of view of stakeholders, the various principles of (in)justice.
Expropriation as Injustice: Seeking for Transformative Pathways in Expropriation in Water Management of Turkey and India
Authors: Ramazan Caner Sayan, Andrew Allan
Abstract: Deeming expropriation in environmental management as a particular expression of social justice awakens the necessity to analyse the procedural issues embedded in policy processes. Expropriation processes in environmental management encompass numerous injustices related to resettlement, rehabilitation and compensation. In this paper, we argue how expropriation issues can be linked to the concept of environmental justice. Whilst recognising that expropriation issues can be analysed within a broader environmental justice understanding, consisting of distributional and recognitional justice and capabilities approach, our focus will be on the procedural issues bound to the expropriation process, which should be transformed to redress the socio-environmental consequences of this process. Accordingly, we use this framework of procedural environmental justice, and undertake a comparative analysis of expropriation cases of Turkey and India in their water management demonstrating how procedural inequalities are produced and cause injustices, which can be overcome by transforming the procedures pursued in the expropriation processes.
Social impacts of biodiversity offset projects
Authors: Cécile Bidaud
Abstract: Biodiversity Offset is a new mechanism by which development project compensate for its negative environmental impacts by conserving or restoring another area. If the focus of biodiversity offset projects mainly rests on the conservation, they might also have social impacts. This paper highlights this point through a case study of a mining company which represents the biggest investment ever in Madagascar. The first activities of this biodiversity offset project are to reduce the anthropic pressure on the forest, therefore have great impact on local livelihood. Those projects also help the peasants to intensify agriculture in order to enhance the local livelihood.
Based on a recent field investigation (October 2014 to June 2015), this presentation will develop on the positive and negative impacts of this biodiversity offset project on local community. The issue here concerns environmental justice as biodiversity offset are focusing on forest conservation while imposing changes for local livelihood.