Cultural ecosystem services: from non-materalities to relationalities
Authors: Rob Fish
Abstract: The construction of culture as a class of ecosystem service presents an interesting test of the ambitions of an ecosystems approach to decision making. This paper explores the theoretical conundrums arising from efforts to understand ecosystems as objects of cultural concern and considers the operational complexities associated with understanding how, and with what consequences, knowledge about cultural ecosystem services are created, communicated and accounted for in real world decision making. The paper specifically forwards and develops a conceptual framework for understanding cultural ecosystem services in terms of the environmental spaces and cultural practices that arise from interactions between humans and ecosystems. The types of knowledge, and approaches to knowledge production, presumed by this relational, non-linear and place-based perspective on cultural ecosystem services are discussed and reviewed.
Cultural Ecosystem Services and Sense of Place: a Process Driven Relational Perspective
Authors: Tim Acott, Julie Urquhart
Abstract: Marine ecology, through the process of marine fishing, drives a series of terrestrial relationships that are woven into material and phenomenological worlds. Using sense of place and cultural ecosystem services we explore how fishing practice is enrolled into community relationships and discuss how emergent cultural values contribute to developing narratives about sustainable communities. Drawing on insights from Actor Network Theory and non-representational theory marine fishing activity can be seen to drive a series of translations through which cultural value and ecosystem benefits emerge. This has applied implications for fisheries management by making visible relations that might otherwise be hidden in studies that focus on ecological and economic dimensions of fisheries management. Conceptual perspectives are reported in the context of empirical work carried out on inshore fishing as part of two INTERREG IVA funded projects, CHARM III and GIFS.
Shared or individual values of ecosystem services, or both? Pluralistic scenario valuation for value pluralism
Authors: Lina Isacs
Abstract: This paper proposes a research method that aims to bridge the gap between consistency and standardisation demanded by decision-making and the need to account for value pluralism and inter-subjectivity in ecosystem assessment. In a marine case study in Sweden, use values and non-use values will be systematically explored using both ‘conventional’ non-market valuation and deliberative group-based approaches to elicit monetary and non-monetary estimates of ecosystem services. An innovation is the employment of two different scenario techniques where changes due to external pressure and policy measures occur at different time horizons and different levels of uncertainty. Assessing different contexts and methodological settings with respect to individual and shared values, we hope to further the development of a pluralistic valuation framework, potentially encompassing social norms and narrative based values and ethics, beside the conventional utilitarian framework.
How do natural environment agencies take account of CES: approaches and challenges?
Authors: Liz O’Brien, Sue Williams, Alison Darlow
Abstract: Natural environment agencies are considering how to take account of cultural ecosystem services by either incorporating and translating them into their existing management and planning processes or by developing and testing new methods based on an ecosystem approach. We explore the approaches being taken by Natural England, Natural Resources Wales and the Forestry Commission. We identify some of the challenges these organisations face and lessons learnt from Natural England’s upland ecosystem pilot projects, Forestry Commission England’s participation in Landscape Partnership Schemes and Natural Resources Wales development and testing of an ecosystem approach.
Multiple identities in cultural ecosystem services
Authors: Katherine Irvine, Anke Fischer, Anja Byg
Abstract: ‘Identity’ is frequently mentioned in connection with cultural ecosystem services. However, the term seems to be used to cover a variety of things. Here we begin to unpack the notion of identity and how different aspects of identities come into play in interactions between humans and ecosystems and places. Based on empirical studies we distinguish between three different aspects of ‘identities’ and the ways in which they connect people and ecosystems. These include: (a) the identities attributed by people to a place or ecosystem, (b) the ways in which people’s identities shape their interactions with ecosystems, and thus the co-production of ecosystem services and (c) the ways in which these interactions (and thus, ecosystem services) shape people’s identities. A more careful differentiation between these aspects of identities may lead to a better understanding of cultural ecosystem services.
How can the Cultural Ecosystem Services of a Caledonian Forest be Realised?
Authors: Tim Collins, Reiko Goto, David Edwards
Abstract: The Black Wood of Rannoch is one of the largest remnants of ancient Caledonian pine forest in Scotland. It is culturally important as a setting for a sense of identity and belonging, aesthetic and spiritual experience, and cultural heritage. Despite this, the values that inform its management are almost exclusively those associated with biodiversity. This focus downplays the significance of its cultural benefits, and constrains their expression to those realised by a strict policy of conservation. We report on a series of recent workshops, discussions, events and residencies to rethink existing narratives of the value and management of the Black Wood and the Caledonian forest more broadly. We present an indicative assessment of possible ecological and cultural impacts of future management scenarios, and explore how such an analysis might help diverse interests realise existing and new cultural ecosystem services through an inclusive process of deliberation, decision-making and action.
More than wine - Cultural ecosystem services in English and Californian vineyard landscapes
Authors: Klara J. Winkler, Kimberly A. Nicholas
Abstract: Although ecosystem services research has increased, knowledge on cultural ecosystem services (CES) is limited. Vineyard landscapes provide not only grapes, but also CES. Using Q-Method, we assessed perceptions of wine producers and local residents of CES of vineyard landscapes in England, an emerging wine area, and in California, a more traditional wine area. We identified four English and four Californian perspectives on CES provided by vineyards. In both cases, wine producers and local residents perceived the CES provided differently. Californian wine producers placed higher value CES connected with wine production, while local residents preferred CES benefitting nature conservation or leisure activities. English wine producers were more positive about local vineyard landscapes than local residents. Furthermore, representatives of groups that benefit most from the currently dominating landscape highly valued heritage and symbolic services, and feared land use change. These findings emphasize the variety of perceptions on CES as experience- and context-dependent.
Trials, Tribulations and Transformations: Cultural Ecosystem Services and Pastoral Futures in Mongolia
Authors: Caroline Upton
Abstract: In contemporary Mongolia, ecosystem services thinking is becoming increasingly influential in decision-making around rural futures. In parallel with the growth of mining activities in rural spaces, pastoralism remains an important livelihood strategy, with nomadic identity and heritage retaining symbolic and cultural value, as well as practical resonance. Nonetheless, to date applications of ES-based approaches have placed overriding emphasis on economic values and valuation techniques and on provisioning services. Theoretical, methodological and policy-oriented engagement with cultural ES and with diverse values and valuation methods remains a major lacuna in contemporary resource governance and planning. This paper reports on a recently completed Darwin Initiative project at four sites across Mongolia, which begins to address these spaces and silences. Specifically, analyses of the nature, spatialities and values of (cultural) ES and their translation into an innovative rangeland PES scheme are presented, with reflections on attendant methodological challenges and innovations.
Comparing instrumental and deliberative approaches to the valuation of social values for cultural ecosystem services: Time for a new paradigm?
Authors: Christopher Raymond, Jasper Kenter, Tobias Plieninger, Nancy Turner, Karen Alexander
Abstract: Despite rapid advancements in the development of non-monetary techniques for the assessment of cultural ecosystem services, little research attention has been devoted to the evaluation of their underpinning paradigms. This paper presents two approaches for assessing social and cultural values for ecosystem services using an instrumental paradigm, involving an objective assessment of the distribution, type and/or intensity of values; and two approaches using a deliberative paradigm, involving the exploration of desired end states through group discussion. Each approach makes different assumptions about: the underlying rationale for values assessment; the process through which values are elicited; the type of representativeness sought, and; the degree of involvement of decision-makers. However, case examples demonstrate that the boundaries between instrumental and deliberative paradigms are often not concrete. To accommodate this fluidity, a third pragmatic paradigm is offered that integrates some of the qualities of both.
Informing biodiversity policy: the role of economic valuation, deliberative institutions and deliberative monetary valuation
Authors: Nele Lienhoop, Bartosz Bartkowski, Bernd Hansjürgens
Abstract: In the past years, monetary valuation of changes to biodiversity and ecosystem services has received increased attention in the scientific community and in the policy arena. Regardless of the abundance of valuation methods, there is a particular interest in obtaining monetary estimates via stated preference methods. While some experts regard these methods as useful means to recognise, demonstrate and integrate biodiversity concerns in policy design, others voice severe criticism and advocate the use of deliberative approaches. This paper outlines the rationale and characteristics of three valuation avenues: stated preference methods, deliberative institutions, and deliberative monetary valuation. We develop criteria that guide the selection of an appropriate valuation approach in different decision contexts and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of each approach against these criteria.
Identifying the supply of nature substitutes through hotspot mapping. Evidence from the Province of Antwerp, Belgium
Authors: Jeremy De Valck, Steven Broekx, Inge Liekens, Leo De Nocker, Liesbet Vranken
Abstract: In Flanders (Belgium), outdoor recreation in nature is becoming a popular activity in peri-urban areas. Because of the scarcity of natural areas, outdoor recreation is observed in various types of landscapes. In this paper, we combine survey information, GIS and statistics to: (1) better understand people’s recreational behaviour, (2) map the supply of nature sites suitable for outdoor recreational activities, and (3) understand how those sites can be substitutes one to another. The analysis focuses on the Belgian Province of Antwerp. The 1201 survey respondents show very informative behavioural patterns. From the 2336 recreational destinations pointed by the respondents, we observe different spatial effects. Spatial regressions are run to explain the characteristics of the recreational substitutes. Our results suggest the presence of context-specific distance-decay effects and corroborate the theory of cognitive distance. Regarding nature substitutes, we observe hotspots inside and outside the borders of the study area.
Incorporating cultural ecosystem services into marine spatial planning: The ICES approach of cultural significance of sea areas
Authors: Andreas Kannen, Kira Gee, Roland Cormier
Abstract: Marine or Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) is a normative approach for decisions on the competitive use of sea space based on several knowledge domains. From an ecosystem service perspective, MSP can be understood as an attempt to allocate space to the full range of ecosystem services provided by coasts and oceans. While it is common to focus on the ecological and economic values provided by the sea, it is less common to regard the sea as a place defined by cultural meanings even though these can be highly relevant for local acceptance and support of planning decisions. The presentation will introduce criteria for assessing the cultural significance of sea areas developed in a workshop of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). The criteria are linked to a risk management approach in order to highlight how cultural values could be integrated into decision making processes.
The ICES Approach: A case study from Devon, England
Authors: Rebecca Shellock, Stephen Fletcher, Emily Beaumont, Andreas Kannen, Kira Gee, Rob Giles
Abstract: There is increasing recognition of the importance of cultural values contained within marine and coastal environments. Despite this, cultural values have rarely been incorporated into Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). The ICES approach has addressed this and provides the first proposal of how cultural values could be integrated in practice. Current research has applied the theory to its first case study, the Dart Estuary (Devon, England). This presentation expands on the introduction by Kannen et al and will discuss the results of applying the cultural significance criteria to the Dart Estuary. This will include the challenges associated with operationalization and suggested refinements to the criteria. The usefulness of the criteria in supporting MSP and marine governance will be discussed in the context of local management, specifically in relation to the Dart Harbour and Navigation Authority and its ‘Forward Vision’.
Using subjective wellbeing to assess the cultural ecosystem services provided by the marine environment
Authors: Ros Bryce, Katherine Irvine, Jasper Kenter
Abstract: To recognise the extensive nature of cultural ecosystem services (CES), there is a need to develop non-monetary methods to measure their influence on human health and wellbeing so they can be better incorporated into decision-making. We developed a survey instrument to measure a diverse range of cultural benefits provided by marine areas at a national scale providing evidence of the cultural value of all sites proposed for protection as part of a UK network of marine conservation zones. By highlighting regional trends in types of cultural wellbeing and identifying biophysical characteristics of marine sites that influence overall cultural wellbeing, we provide evidence supporting 1) better integration of CES in the ecosystem service framework and 2) decisions about marine protection that consider socio-cultural values alongside economic and ecological factors.
Integrating hedonic and psychometric approaches for assessing effects of conservation, renewables and aquaculture on marine cultural ecosystem services
Authors: Jasper Kenter, Marcello Graziano, Elisavet Spanou, Katherine Irvine
Abstract: This study develops a novel approach that integrates monetary valuation of CES on the basis of hedonic pricing, and non-monetary valuation on the basis of a psychometric subjective well-being (SWB) instrument. The approach is developed using a case study that looks at the value of CES in the Scottish marine environment, and how it may be influenced by marine conservation, aquaculture and renewable energy developments. Hedonic approaches indirectly value the environment by looking at how different environmental features affect house prices. The psychometric approach reflects different CES in a set of indicators and the assumed structure of CES can then be tested empirically. Integration of hedonic and SWB approaches provides decision-makers and marine spatial planners with a combination of tools that provide a more comprehensive picture of how different types of development in the marine environment affect CES benefits.