Human Scale Development – transitions in the case of energy cooperatives.
Authors: salina centgraf, Felix Rauschmayer
Abstract: Energy cooperatives (EC) are an important player for the transition processes of current energy systems towards sustainability and decentralization in Germany. Currently, more than 900 EC exist n Germany. The democratic organisation of EC, related to the source of their financial assets, makes them a special actor for creating public acceptance for system transitions. Being a member of EC or even a user of its services may alter one’s quality of life. Following the Human Scale Development Approach (HSDA) of Manfred Max-Neef (Max-Neef 1991), the paper carves out the motivations for pro-social behaviour of members of EC and reflects on the feasibility of the HSDA as a tool to support local initiatives and pioneers on a transition path in industrialized countries. The paper describes particularities of German EC and the HSDA which is applied in 6 German EC. Finally, it discusses the advantages and limitations of this approach.
How sustainable is the Brazilian agri-food system: assessment from a novel indicator framework
Authors: William Goulart da Silva, Julia Steinberger, John Barrett, Gerd Sparovek
Abstract: The production of food has to be 70% higher in order to feed the future global population in 2050. The challenge to simultaneously increase food production and reduce negative social and environmental impacts of agricultural production is significant. An indicator framework is created to assess sustainability and evaluate the Brazilian agri-food system’s compliance with the international targets for sustainable development in two relevant international agreements: the Millennium Development Goals and Aichi targets. The indicators suggest that the Brazilian agri-food system is unsustainable, not achieving effectively the Millennium Development Goals and Aichi targets. Better performance is observed in indicators related to the access of food, like hunger eradication. Improvements are required for environmental over-extraction and degradation, GHG emissions, use of fertilizers/pesticides and social inequality. Scientists and practitioners have to work together to address gaps, produce and integrate new knowledge with the objectives of policy instruments and social movements to promote sustainability.
‘Foodprints’ for sustainability and health: an Australian case study
Authors: Michalis Hadjikakou, Thomas Wiedmann
Abstract: Similarly to other Western countries, current food consumption patterns in Australia have been linked to high rates of diet-related diseases and have a high environmental footprint. Although national dietary guidelines do offer some general guidance towards healthy and sustainable eating, there is inadequate consideration of access and affordability constraints faced by different socioeconomic groups. The aim of this study is to better quantify diet-related environmental, health and economic impacts of diverse socioeconomic groups living in different parts of the country. Using highly disaggregated environmentally extended input-output tables and census-based expenditure data, we compare the representative shopping baskets for 13 distinct socioeconomic groups against official guidelines and also evaluate their associated supply chain carbon emissions, water use, land use, value added and employment contribution. We finally develop bespoke recommendations which cater to the particularities (such as access to food, food prices and available choices, income and education) of each socioeconomic group.
A typology of resource use adaptation among rice-farming households in Asia.
Authors: Clemens Grunbuhel
Abstract: The paper explores the possibility of creating a meta-typology for rice-farming households in Asia based on case studies in four countries for which separate household typologies had been developed. The analysis applies the livelisystems approach and impredicative loop analysis in order to scale up local-level household information for higher-level design of adaptation options and policy interventions. Results visualise the transformation of resources as farming households adapt to changing environments. It shows that farmers require either specific interventions attuned to their resource base or strong policy support as they entirely shift their livelihood strategies. The method of analysis applied shows that abstract typologies developed from empirical data can serve as powerful tools at the science-policy interface.
Exploring a global a-growth pathway from the energy perspective
Authors: Iñigo Capellan Perez, Margarita Mediavilla, Carlos De Castro, Oscar Carpintero, Luis Javier Miguel
HAPPINESS AND FOOTPRINTS – Assessing the Relationship between Individual Well-being and the Environmental and Social Footprints of Consumption
Authors: Peter Daniels, Chris Ambrey
Abstract: This paper investigates the nature of the empirical link between people’s well-being and their environmental and social footprint. Although per capita economic growth is no longer a strong predictor of ecological stress (from individual to national levels), a more detailed investigation of favourable well-being outcomes for people with relatively low footprints should help suggest a range of insights and potential options and strategies for win-win transitions to more sustainable futures. This research builds on existing and extensive work examining the link between “happiness” and environmental conditions and pressures but is unique in terms of its detail and disaggregation in measuring and relating individual well-being (using the Australian HILDA well-being index), and an extensive range of social and environmental impact measures. The environmental and social impact or footprint measures utilise new multi-regional input-output tables capable of accounting for fully supply chain and embodied demands of people’s consumption and broader lifestyle choices.
The Environmental Impact of Human Needs
Authors: Konstantin Stadler, Ricardo Gibran Vita Garza, Richard Wood, Edgar Hertwich
Abstract: Currently, we face the pressing challenge of transforming our socio-economic system into one that satisfies human needs in an environmental sustainable way. Surprisingly, so far environmental accounting concentrates on the environmental burden of products and lacks the connection to the actual needs satisfied through consumption. Here we present a novel attempt to close that gap. We connect the human needs framework by Max-Neef with the consumption-based accounting of Environmental Extended Multi-Regional Input Output analysis. This allows us to calculate the environmental footprints of human needs. We find the highest resource use associated with the fulfilment of the human needs of identity, freedom, leisure and subsistence. Another aspect of the analysis reveal that countries vary considerable in their resource efficiency of human needs fulfilment. The presented framework enables the assessment of the eco-efficiency of need fulfilment across nations and provides a unique data source for human centred policy development.
What are the resources required to fulfil human needs? Analysis of past trends and future research agenda
Authors: Julia Steinberger
Abstract: All human societies require environmental resources, in the form of energy, materials and land, to survive and flourish. However, the exact level of resource requirements may be difficult to estimate, since it can depend on many factors: local biophysical conditions, such as climate or available crops for food; technological options and efficiencies for delivering key services; but also socio-economic parameters, including consumption levels and inequality in distribution. This talk will present recent advances in the international study of resource and energy requirements for human needs. An agenda for analysing the resource requirements to fulfil universal basic human needs will then be presented. This agenda must take into account socio-economic as well as technological choices, since the decoupling required to fulfil human needs within planetary boundaries most likely requires a fundamental re-organisation and re-orientation of many socio-economic activities.