A comparison of EXIOBASE, GTAP and EORA models to calculate material footprint
Authors: Stefan Giljum, Heinz Schandl, Manfred Lenzen
Abstract: Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) is currently the most commonly used material flow-based indicator on the international level. However, the necessity to develop more comprehensive indicators of global material flows, so-called material footprint indicators, has been articulated by a large number of stakeholders. Multi-regional input-output (MRIO) models extended by world-wide data on material extraction have become a key method to assess material footprints. This paper will perform the first quantitative comparative assessment of selected MRIO databases to calculate material footprint indicators, notably the EORA, EXIOBASE and GTAP databases, using a globally harmonized data base of global material extraction currently developed for the UNEP-IRP as the physical satellite. Thereby, we will investigate why results for certain countries or world regions differ significantly when calculated with different MRIO models. The paper will present recommendations for the required steps to further harmonize available methods and on the interpretability of the respective results.”
Policy options for designing a carbon border tax
Authors: Jordi Roca, Paola Rocchi, Iñaki Arto, Mònica Serrano
Abstract: The following analysis focuses on carbon-motivated border tax adjustments (CBTA), which are tariffs applied by countries implementing carbon control policies imposed on products imported from abroad. In particular we focus on CBTAs policy design, since CBTAs can be computed considering emissions embodied in imports, or referring to emissions avoided through imports. Using the WIOD database, we simulate through a multi-region and multi-sector analysis what tariffs system should be applied to products imported in Europe to compensate an European CO2 emissions taxation, considering embedded emissions or avoided emissions. To know for which countries and sectors the method used is critical can help to understand and to add information to the political debate on it. Furthermore, an important novelty of our analysis is that we estimate avoided emissions not only using the traditional “domestic technology assumption”, but also using a more appropriate approach that considers the physical quantities of imported goods.”
Effect of aggregation and disaggregation on embodied material use of products in input-output analysis
Authors: A. de Koning
Abstract: Consumption based material footprints calculated with multi-regional Input-Output Analysis (mrIOA) can be influenced by the sectoral, spatial and material aggregation used in the mrIOAs. This study investigates the effect of resolution in mrIOAs on consumption based material footprints and material embedded in trade. The effect of aggregation was investigated by making different input-output tables with different spatial, product and material category resolution and comparing the calculated material footprints. Our results indicate that the material footprints of countries calculated with the different mrIO models are in general in the order of a few percentage with outliers in the order of 25% difference. For some product categories the results are structurally inaccurate. This result suggests that the material data used to create the material extensions for the IO framework should be collected at the highest resolution that is practically feasible.”
Biomass trade and food import dependency in the corporate food regime
Authors: Andreas Mayer, Willi Haas, Anke Schaffartzik
Abstract: There are increasingly more demands on the land system, resulting in an intensified competition between different biomass uses as food, feed, fibres or biofuel. These additional industrial demands for biomass uses have strong impacts, e.g. rising global trade volumes. Proponents of the food regime theory underpin the strategic role of agriculture and food on global commodity markets, and stress that global trade flows of biomass are increasingly flowing from global South to global North, a reversal of flows compared to the second food regime (where flows mainly run from global North to South). Against this backdrop, we have clustered countries by income, food supply, and the role of food trade to identify patterns of food import dependency or high food exports. We compare metabolic patterns of countries that are net-exporters of biomass with net-importers of biomass, discussing these trade patterns regarding their consequences for the vulnerability of national food systems.”
Changing patterns of global agri-food trade and virtual water flows
Authors: Jana Schwarz, Erik Mathijs, Miet Maertens
Abstract: In this paper we analyze the relation between the expansion and changing composition of global agri-food trade and flows of virtual water between world regions. Our database includes annual trade data of 101 countries from 1986 to 2011 trading 256 crop and livestock products which we classify into four commodity groups. The findings show that over time trade values have increased more than virtual water volumes; especially in Africa and South America where virtual water exports have roughly quadrupled since 1986. In all regions staples and industrial products account for the largest share in virtual water trade (>70%) whereas high-value products and animal products are of increasing importance for developing regions’ export values. Water efficiency of trade, i.e. the money earned (spent) per unit of virtual water exported (imported) has increased in all regions since 2000 and export water efficiency is especially high in Europe.”
Biodiversity in input-output analysis: the indirect drivers of biodiversity loss
Authors: Alexandra Marques, Inês Martins, Henrique Pereira
Abstract: In 2010, the European Union established its growth strategy for the ten years ahead, the EU 2020 Strategy. The Resource-Efficient Europe is one of its flagship initiatives, framed under the principle of sustainable growth. One of its key proposals is the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 to halt biodiversity loss and ecosystems degradation. This strategy highlights the importance of reducing the impacts of EU consumption patterns, particularly for resources that have significant negative impacts on biodiversity. Understanding how consumption drives biodiversity loss due to land use change can provide new pathways for biodiversity conservation. In this work, we developed a biodiversity extension to EXIOBOASE, a global multi-regional environmentally extended input-output database. We used the countryside species area relationship to measure the number of species lost due to the activity of the land use sectors and analyze how consumption indirectly drives biodiversity loss.
Tracking of land flows embodied in global non-food supply chains using a Hybrid-MRIO approach
Authors: Mirko Lieber, Guenther Fischer, Sylvia Tramberend, Martin Bruckner
Abstract: In this paper we apply and discuss hybrid (mixed-unit) input-output analysis for the case of land flow accounting by integrating agricultural andforestry statistics on production, trade and utilization quantities in weight units for the years 1995-2011 with a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) system in monetary units. Thereby we add further detail to the bio-based sectors of the economy and trace actual physical flows, thus avoiding the uncertainties introduced by the homogeneity and proportionality assumptions in conventional (monetary) IOanalysis. Further utilization andtrade of bio-based commodities not covered in agricultural statistics in physical units, in particular non-food industrial commodities,are traced further to final consumers by integrating the physical systemwith a monetaryMRIOtable (EXIOBASE 3.0). The resulting global MFA-MRIOsystem canbe used to solidly trace directand indirect flows of biomass and relatedlanduse through international supply chains.
How is Austrian RMC developing over time? A methods comparison extended
Authors: Nina Eisenmenger, Anke Schaffartzik, Dominik Wiedenhofer
Abstract: The exchange of goods and the physical flows related to it gains high importance in discussing the sustainable use of resources of individual economies. Within the material flow accounting (MFA) framework, trade flows are considered at the time the good is crossing administrative borders. For a consumption based perspective, which is interested in accounting for all resources used for satisfying final demand of a country, the additional integration of upstream material use (also termed raw material equivalents, RME) of traded goods is required. Currently a number of different methods to calculate RME exist, mostly based on input-output tables applied in single-region- or multi-region input-output models, or hybrid LCA-IO methods. This method comparison for 2007 is now expanded by a time series that is available for three MRIO and three hybrid LCA-IO models.